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Cardiac Risk Factor Modification (CRF)

Expert guidance to assist in reduction of risk factors (hypertension, cholesterol, etc) in order reduce the risk of coronary artery disease and associated events.

Congestive Heart Failure

  • Disorder of the heart muscle (stiffness-diastolic, weakness-systolic) and/or heart valves resulting in fluid retention, shortness of breath, exercise intolerance

  • Often managed with medication and dietary modification but may require catheter or surgical intervention

Valvular Heart Disease

  • Acquired forms of Aortic, Mitral or Tricuspid Valve Disease typically due to narrowing (stenosis), leakage (regurgitation) or both

  • Often managed with medication and follow-up but may ultimately require catheter based minimally invasive therapies (TAVR, TEER) or open surgical intervention

Pericardial Disorders

  • Typically inflammation of the pericardial sac around the heart

  • Usually managed with medication but may require catheter or surgical intervention

Heart Rhythm Disorders

  • Slow (Bradycardic) or Rapid (Tachycardic) rhythm disorders

  • May require medication, referral for procedures (Electrophysiologic Study and/or Ablation), or implantation of devices (pacemakers, ICD therapy)

Stroke Prevention

  • Aggressive Cardiac Risk Factor Reduction Measures

  • Atrial Fibrillation therapies aimed at reducing the risk of blood clots traveling to the brain (anticoagulants, device implantation (Watchman/Amulet)

  • Evaluation and therapies for ASD/PFO if found

  • Carotid Artery Noninvasive evaluation and follow-up (stenting, referral for surgery)

Peripheral Vascular Disease

  • Aggressive Cardiac Risk Factor Reduction Measures

  • Evaluation for coexisting Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

  • Non invasive/Angiographic evaluation for claudication or threatened limbs

  • Medical and Catheter based therapies for blockage in arteries to the limbs or major organs

  • Catheter and Surgical based therapies for aneurysm of the major arteries

Adult Congenital Heart Disease

  • Manifestations of abnormalities present since birth in the adult such as Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO), Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) or Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease (BAV)

  • Often managed with medications but may require catheter-based therapy (device closure, TAVR) or surgical intervention

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

  • ANGINA PECTORIS: Chest pain caused by atherosclerotic blockage in one or more coronary arteries which deprives the heart muscle of necessary oxygen and nutrients.

  • ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME (ACS): An advanced form of coronary artery disease which is often an immediate precursor to heart attack

  • STEMI: The most acute form of CAD resulting in a patient presenting with a major heart attack best treated by immediate stent placement.

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